History of The Wheelchair
In accordance with history of the wheelchair, first symbols were found in China & Greece at ancient time. From 5th to 6th BCE Finders noticed some emblem there. In 12th century manual wheelchair was first appeared in Europe. Gradually that got ahead.
12th to 21st: Developments of wheelchair
Initially in 1595 an unknown inventor constructed a wheelchair with limited capacity that was familiar as invalid’s chair for gouty King Phillip II of Spain. Then German inventors Stephen Farfler & Johann Hautsch have developed it in 17th century. Englishmen John Dawson & James Heath advanced it more in 18th century. Farther developments were continued in 19th to 21st centuries as well.
Primary wheelchairs were like wheelbarrow. Users had felt inconvenient with those manual arrangements. Then two German developed entire body and attached some tools on it. On the process they have made a three wheeled device with hand controlled pinion system.
Around 1750 two Englishmen have assembled a rickshaw like bath chair for ladies & invalids along with the purpose to create transport facilities for ill, injured and disables. Then users had to wait for hundred years for next developments.
Into 1900 performing some variations to make it comfortable, seat and back were made by cane setting on a wooden structure. During US civil war veterans had use that couches.
At ending decades of 19th century new adjustments were introduced as spooked wheels and rubber tires were concluded. However that chair had the limitation to move home inside.
In 1912 a 1 horsepower motor was used in a tricycle like chair. Subsequently first motorized chairs manufactured in London in 1916.
After that, most useful foldable one invented in 1932 by US engineers Harry C. Jennings & Herbert A. Everest. Then they produced a tubular-steel made foldable wheelchair in a large scale in 1933.
During 1942 to 1950 various electrical components were set in motorized operation phase. Later, in 1979, considering sports purposes use, to avoid heavyweight obstruction developers Marilyn Hamilton, Jim Okamoto and Don Helman have designed some ultralight types. That was faster & dependable for playing tennis and basketball. Note, meanwhile an US invincible disabled man Jim Martinson sketched an outline of another compatible sports chair in 1968.
Development at a glance
Very beginning to modern era, diverse mechanical developments were repeatedly conducted on this assistive barrow. Initially wheels were developed in 17th century. In next century, shape, wheel rotating & controlling modes had been modified for various times. In later centuries inconveniences had been prioritized.
Hence, weight and balance factors had been gradually developed. Then on motorization process, motor and batteries were added. On customization, electric wheelchairs got more development. By continuous development research, ultra modern and spectacular best wheelchair brands come with advanced technologies to 21st century.
Total Outcome of Wheelchair Development
On the way of history of the wheelchair several types are taken place since inception to recent times. In transition wood, wicker, iron and steel were used to improve the cart. Entire period users met with various types.
The oldest got set foot in Europe. Later, another was invented with limited capacity. Then little bit developed. Three wheeled hand-driven bath wheelchair come after that. Subsequently, bath & medical transport wheelchairs arrived as cousin. Recent manuals are standard with suitable usability’s.
Examining inconveniences on earlier editions, aluminum and titanium were used to reduce weight. Those appeared as lighter than previous. So light weight chair reached to user. Moreover these chairs were appropriate for using in sports.
Heavy chair was difficult to use. Precedence to portability, developers designed a foldable structure. By using tubular steel an X- frame chair was built successfully. This outline of this sensational foldable wheelchair was drawn by two US engineers at fourth decade of nineties.
At middle ages of nineties, electric wheelchairs spread over to users. Suitable motors & batteries were set under the seat and driving portion was isolated into the chair. Considering possible spinal defacement, jerk absorber compound were set under seat. Practically these were relaxing.
This is for traumatic injuries or neuromuscular patients. In mobility restriction period, safety operation of a chair need for them. So a reclining wheelchair is perfect for lying down because in recumbent position, body can be move with angles between vertical to horizontal position.
On the way of history of the wheelchair, we can see, by speculating possible facilities for users a lot of transformations have taken place at different times. Research is a continuous process. So we will be looking at further development by research.